Because harvested and dried cannabis or hemp material only contains trace amounts of cannabigerol (CBG), it is often considered to be a “minor” cannabinoid. But, when you start to take a closer look, a different picture begins to emerge.
Here’s a closer look at the origins of CBG and some of the ways its consumption may benefit you!
First discovered in 1964 by Israeli researchers Yehiel Gaoni and Raphael Mechoulam, CBG plays a significant role in the biology of cannabis plants.
CBG is a non-psychoactive compound that comes from cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), which is the chemical parent to some of the most well-known cannabinoids like tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). If you think of cannabinoids as existing in a family tree, CBGA sits at the top, with tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), cannabichromenic acid (CBCA), and CBG as its direct “descendants.”
Naturally occurring enzymes transform the CBGA into THCA, CBDA, and CBCA; heat, say from the sun or a flame, decarboxylates the CBGA, turning it into CBG. Because CBGA is converted into so many different molecules, there is relatively little CBG (less than 1% of the cannabinoid makeup) contained in the cannabis plant.
Generally speaking, if a cannabis strain contains higher amounts of THC and CBD, it will contain less CBG. But as more research is conducted on the potential therapeutic uses for cannabigerol, a high-CBG strain may just be what’s optimal for your needs.
Increasing the CBG content in cannabis strains and CBD oils may have some interesting benefits.
Like CBD and other cannabinoids, CBG works on the body’s endocannabinoid system impacting the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors. However, unlike cannabinoids like THC, CBG has not been shown to be mind-altering or intoxicating, making it more accessible to a wider audience.
The current research suggests that CBG has great medical potential to help with everything from reducing inflammation to assisting in cancer treatments. Here’s a look at some of what is currently known about CBG.
In one study performed on mice, CBG was found to reduce the inflammation associated with colitis, a painful inflammatory bowel disease.
Obviously, animal studies are not the same as human studies but given that a significant number of human ailments and diseases have inflammation at their root, this may prove to be a promising discovery.
In a 2018 study conducted in vitro (i.e. in petri dishes), researchers examined CBG’s effect on brain cells that were targeted by neurodegenerative macrophages. In the end, the neurons that were pre-treated with CBG were protected from inflammation and oxidative stress induced by the macrophage, and were less likely to experience cell death.
In another animal study, researchers discovered that CBG was able to protect the neurons of mice with Huntington’s disease. The researchers conclude by stating, “our results open new research avenues for the use of CBG, alone or in combination with other phytocannabinoids or therapies, for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as HD [Huntington’s Disease].”
While more research, specifically on human test subjects, is required, the results so far point to CBG as a potential and potent neuroprotectant.
In yet another study performed on mice, CBG was found to block the receptors that have been linked to the growth of cancer cells. Specifically, CBG was shown to inhibit the growth of colorectal cancer cells, which ultimately slowed the progression of the cancer. More research is necessary, but CBG may turn out to be very effective in colorectal cancer treatments.
CBG can also help to mitigate the appetite loss that can accompany chemotherapy treatments and work as an appetite stimulant for people experiencing cachexia, the loss of weight and strength that is often seen in those with chronic illnesses. In a study performed on rats, CBG was found to stimulate the appetite and combat cachexia.
Like other cannabinoids, the research on CBG as a cancer fighter is still very early. Again though, the results produced so far are encouraging and continue to pave the way for more studies on the topic.
Cannabis has been used for decades to reduce intraocular pressure and relieve conditions like glaucoma. The eye is full of endocannabinoid receptors, so it makes sense that cannabinoids would impact this area.
THC has been attached to this response but it appears that cannabinoids in general, including CBG, can contribute to a reduction in intraocular pressure.
Cannabinoids like CBG are vasodilators. This means that they open, or dilate blood vessels, by preventing the muscles in the walls of the arteries and veins from tightening and closing in. This can reduce the pressure that is a contributor to conditions like glaucoma and hypertension.
Topicals derived from cannabis have been used as antibacterial agents for a long time, but it was only recently that researchers began to examine why. In a 2008 study, all five major cannabinoids (THC, CBD, CBG, CBC, CBN) displayed activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains.
More research is needed to determine the mechanism of their actions but these results could indicate significant potential for the treatment of bacterial infections in the future.
It is possible to use a CBG isolate, but one of the best ways to reap its potential benefits is to use a full-spectrum or broad-spectrum CBD oil.
A full-spectrum CBD oil will contain the cannabinoids and terpenes found in the whole plant, including THC. A broad-spectrum CBD oil will contain all the cannabinoids and terpenes except THC. This is an important distinction depending on where you live.
The 2018 Farm Bill established that in order to pass federal regulations, a CBD oil product should contain 0.3% or less THC content. Many states have also based their legislation around this same number. If you live in a state that has legalized recreational cannabis, you can legally purchase and possess a full-spectrum CBD oil that has a THC concentration greater than 0.3%. However, if you live in a more restrictive state, you’ll want a broad-spectrum CBD oil. So, before you decide on which product to buy, be sure to understand the laws in your state.
Whether you go with a full-spectrum or broad-spectrum product, it’s fairly easy to figure out just how much CBG is in the final product. All you have to do is read the Certificate of Analysis (COA).
Most reputable brands third-party lab test their products to ensure that they meet purity and potency standards. The results of these lab tests, called Certificates of Analysis, should be easily accessible on the company’s website. The COA will tell you exactly which cannabinoids are present, and at what concentration. This information will help you narrow down your CBD oil product choice and help you determine if it has enough CBG to satisfy your goals.
Remember, when these cannabinoids are used together, they can increase the effectiveness of one another by way of the entourage effect. Not only will you be getting the benefits of CBG, but you’ll get the natural benefits of all hemp plant’s compounds working together.
It is clear that CBG presents incredible potential for dealing with a wide range of ailments. More research is needed to understand how CBG works on its own and in concert with other cannabinoids but as things stand, CBG may be the helper of the future.
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